Meanwhile, the perceived harshness of Yalbugha's educational methods and his refusal to rescind his disciplinary reforms led to a mamluk backlash.  The latter had been abandoned by Faraj and his late father's entourage, who left for Cairo.  The détente also saw a shift in Qalawun's building activities to focus on more secular and personal purposes, including a large, multi-division hospital complex in Cairo across from the tomb of as-Salih Ayyub. Although not in the same form as under the Sultanate, the Ottoman Empire retained the Mamluks as an Egyptian ruling class and the Mamluks and the Burji family succeeded in regaining much of their influence, but remained vassals of the Ottomans.  However, unlike the collective sovereignty of the Ayyubids where territory was divided among members of the royal family, the Mamluk state was unitary.  Nonetheless, in the following year, Barquq toppled as-Salih Hajji with the backing of Yalbugha's mamluks and assumed the sultanate, adopting the title of Baybars, "al-Malik az-Zahir". For God's sake—who pays any heed to the caliph now? In the ensuing half-hour clash, Baybars's men feigned a retreat and were pursued by Kitbuqa. na'ib as-saltana).  The battle ended in a Mongol rout and Kitbuqa's capture and execution. These mamluks were called the "Salihiyyah" (singular "Salihi") after their master.  To bring further uniformity to the military, Baybars and Qalawun standardized the undefined Ayyubid policies regarding the distribution of iqtaʿat to emirs. The journal also covers Spain, south-east Europe, and parts of Africa, South Asia, and the former Soviet Union for subjects of relevance to Middle Eastern civilization. Since siege warfare is popular in the deserts, the Sultanate also has specially trained siege units. The map to the right shows the main Emirates and Amirates of the Mamluk Sultanate. Winter, ed.  Concurrent with an-Nasir Muhammad's reign was the disintegration of the Ilkhanate into several smaller dynastic states and the consequent Mamluk effort to establish diplomatic and commercial relationships with the new political entities. The latter's forces fell into a Mamluk trap once they reached the springs of Ain Jalut, with Baybars's men turning around to confront the Mongols and Qutuz's units ambushing the Mongols from the hills. Secure now against Ismail I, in 1516 he drew together a great army aiming at conquering Egypt, but to obscure the fact he presented the mobilisation of his army as being part of the war against Ismail I. They were mostly drawn from among the Cumans-Kipchaks who controlled the steppes north of the Black Sea.  Typically, a qadi or Muslim scholar would occupy the post, but in the 15th century, Mamluk emirs began to be appointed as muhtasibs in an effort to compensate emirs during cash shortages or as a result of the gradual shift of the muhtasib's role from the legal realm to one of enforcement..  Tatar died three months into his reign and was succeeded by Barsbay, another Circassian emir of Barquq, in 1422. , As-Salih became sultan of Egypt in 1240, and, upon his accession to the Ayyubid throne, he manumitted and promoted large numbers of his original and newly recruited mamluks on the condition that they remain in his service. , Baybars II ruled for roughly one year before an-Nasir Muhammad became sultan again in 1310, this time ruling for over three consecutive decades in a period that is often considered by historians of the Mamluk period to be the apex of both the Bahri regime specifically and the Mamluk Sultanate in general.  The iqtaʿ of the Muslims differed from the European concept of fiefs in that iqtaʿ represented a right to collect revenue from a fixed territory and was accorded to an officer (emir) as income and as a financial source to provision his soldiers. The Sultanate also controlled vassals in Yemen, Oman, Cicilia, Somalia, and the Swahili, while being in a Personal Union with the powerful Jalayirid Sultanate of Mesopotamia. Qalawun's forces were significantly outnumbered by the estimated 80,000-strong Ilkhanid-Armenian-Georgian-Seljuk coalition, but marched north from Damascus to meet the Ilkhanid army at Homs. The latter was killed in a mamluk revolt and was succeeded by his brother al-Muzaffar Hajji, who was also killed in a mamluk revolt in late 1347. List of Prime Ministers of the United States of America (A United Kingdom of Scandinavia). Former Nations (Principia Moderni III Map Game), https://althistory.fandom.com/wiki/Mamluk_Sultanate_(Principia_Moderni_III_Map_Game)?oldid=1294399. Each issue contains approximately 50 pages of detailed book reviews.  Construction of the hospital, a contrast from his Mamluk predecessors who focused on establishing madrasas, was done to gain the goodwill of the public, create a lasting legacy, and secure his spot in the afterlife. These republican amirates are led by Amirs, who are elected at varying intervals, dependent upon the region. In May 1285, he captured the Marqab fortress and garrisoned it.  In the Mamluk era, the iqtaʿ was an emir's principal source of income, and starting in 1337, Mamluk iqtaʿ holders would lease or sell rights to their iqtaʿat to non-mamluks in order to derive greater revenues.  The emirs could not usurp the throne themselves, however, and had Caliph al-Musta'in installed; the caliph had the support of the non-Circassian mamluks and legitimacy with the local population. The location of Egypt, along the powerful Nile River, created the first civilizations in the region in 3772 BH (3150 BC), when Menes created the first of the Ancient Egyptian kingdoms.  While the Salihi mamluks were typically Kipchak Turks, Qalawun diversified mamluk ranks purchasing numerous non-Turks, particularly Circassians, forming out of them the Burji regiment.  Arabic sources for the period of the Bahri Mamluks refer to the dynasty as the State of the Turks (Arabic: دولة الاتراك, Dawlat al-Atrāk; دولة الترك, Dawlat al-Turk) or State of Turkey (الدولة التركية, al-Dawla al-Turkiyya).  The Mamluks used the same currency system as the Ayyubids, which consisted of gold dinars, silver dirhams and copper fulus. In 1428, trade in the Mamluk Sultanate greatly increased with the creation of two semi-private trading corporations, both of which were granted royal charters by Sultan al-Mansur Mostafa Hazem. While the entirety of the Sultanate recognizes the Sultan as the Sovereign ruler, certain Emirs practice more autonomy, typically due to a period of integration, than others. Under the current system of government, in which Mamluks rule, the military warriors, who ride on horseback and follow a strict code of Furusiyya control the civilian government as well, albeit under the Sultan.  Three years later, Baybars reestablished the institution of the caliphate by making a member of the Abbasid family, al-Mustansir, caliph, who in turn confirmed Baybars as sultan.  More often than not, the sons of sultans were elected by the senior emirs with the ultimate intention that they serve as convenient figureheads presiding over an oligarchy of the emirs. institution, Login via your  Land was assessed by the periodic rawk (cadastral survey), which consisted of a survey of land parcels (measured by feddan units), assessment of land quality and the annual estimated tax revenue of the parcels, and classification of a parcel's legal status as waqf (trust) or iqtaʿ.  Bedouin tribal wars frequently disrupted trade and travel in Upper Egypt, and caused the destruction of cultivated lands and sugar processing plants.  The Maronite Church was especially suspected by the Mamluks of collaboration with the Europeans due to the high degree of relations between the Maronite Church and the papacy in Rome and the Christian European powers, particularly Cyprus.