Breastfeeding infants were also less likely to have received WIC benefits (P<0.01). The percentage of infants who met the 2008 AAP vitamin D recommendation was examined over time and by demographic subgroup.

Breastfeeding and nonbreastfeeding groups were compared across the following demographic variables: age of infant (0–5, 6–11 months), sex, race and/or ethnicity (non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic other [ie, Asian, American Indian and Alaskan native, Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander, and other, including multiracial]), receipt of benefits by the infant from the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) program during the last 12 months (data available for 2009–2014 only), family income expressed as a percentage of the federal poverty level (FPL) (also known as poverty-to-income ratio and calculated by using US Department of Health and Human Services poverty guidelines on the basis of family income, family size, year, and state23 [<100%, 100%–<200%, 200%–<400%, and ≥400%]), education of head of household (less than or equal to high school diploma, some college, and college graduate), and health insurance status (private insurance, other insurance, and uninsured). As reported by caregivers for the dietary recall period assessed as part of the NHANES, 37.4% of infants were breastfeeding and 62.6% were not breastfeeding. Pediatrics; professor of medicine, University of Wisconsin. �‡��R㓃i�}�\\Rf~��/�)�>f��r��7]}Z���C���va���ix��d�o�6|�?q�UjV U�P���x�� ���5�=�V����^e��ByFY�. One nationally representative study from Canada in 2003 revealed that ∼50% of infants who were breastfeeding at 6 months were being supplemented.29 However, more recent regional studies from Canada suggest higher rates. Frank R. Greer, MD, chairman, Committee on Nutrition, American Academy of 1 0 obj Oct. 13, 2008 -- The American Academy of Pediatrics has doubled its recommendation for the minimum amount of vitamin D that infants, children, and teens should get daily.

In this study, we found that there was no improvement in the rates of meeting the AAP vitamin D intake guidelines for infants during the first 8 years after their release in 2008. Find the latest research and articles related to COVID-19 for free. Since 2012, trends in vitamin D intake among infants at a national level have not been well described.

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These findings suggest renewed consideration of how to best meet vitamin D intake guidelines. BACKGROUND: The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) revised its infant vitamin D intake guidelines in 2008.

3. In this study, we did not observe any increase in meeting the guidelines for vitamin D intake among US infants from 2009–2010, right after the new AAP vitamin D intake guidelines were first released, to 2015–2016, the most recent years of data available. Bruce W. Hollis, PhD, professor of pediatrics, biochemistry, and molecular Demographic Characteristics of US Infants by Breastfeeding Status, 2009–2016. Other insurance included any nonprivate sources of insurance such as government programs, including Medicaid, State Children’s Health Insurance Programs, military health care, and the Indian Health Service. In 2008, the American Academy of Pediatrics revised its vitamin D intake guidelines. Adjusted Percentage of US Infants Meeting the 2008 AAP Recommended Vitamin D Intake Guideline by Breastfeeding Status and Selected Demographic Characteristics, 2009–2016. Video Abstract BACKGROUND: The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) revised its infant vitamin D intake guidelines in 2008.

The new guidelines are especially important for breastfed babies, since breast milk isn't rich in vitamin D, notes Greer, who recommends supplements to ensure adequate vitamin D intake. DOI:, American Academy of Pediatrics Section on Breastfeeding, American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Nutrition, Prevention of rickets and vitamin D deficiency in infants, children, and adolescents [published correction appears in Pediatrics. "IOM is in discussions with various agencies and other groups that would sponsor a new review by the IOM of the science about vitamin D and calcium intakes to maintain health," IOM spokeswoman Christine Stencel tells WebMD. "In my estimation, this recommendation just doesn't do much," he tells WebMD. All guidelines published since 2010 worldwide suggest that infant vitamin D intake should be 400 IU per day.28 However, authors of few population studies have examined infant vitamin D intake. 2009;123(1):197], Nutrient specifications, 21 CFR §107.100 (2019), Institute of Medicine Committee to Review Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin D and Calcium, Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D, Dietary reference intakes for calcium and vitamin D, Dietary guidelines for calcium and vitamin D: a new era, Optimizing bone health in children and adolescents, Adherence to vitamin D recommendations among US infants, Adherence to vitamin D recommendations among US infants aged 0 to 11 months, NHANES, 2009 to 2012, Use of supplemental vitamin D among infants breastfed for prolonged periods, The answer is 17 years, what is the question: understanding time lags in translational research, Improved vitamin D supplementation in hospitalized breastfed infants through electronic order modification and targeted provider education, Vitamin D patient education with a provided prescription prior to newborn discharge improves adherence to vitamin D recommendation in infants returning to clinic for follow-up [abstract], Improving vitamin D supplementation rates in the neonate [abstract], Improving vitamin D administration to breastfeeding newborns using a quality improvement model* [abstract], Improving pediatric health care delivery by engaging residents in team-based quality improvement projects, Quality improvement: vitamin D supplementation in breastfeeding infants in a pediatric resident continuity clinic, AAP Experience National Conference and Exhibition; October 11–14, 2014, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: sample design, 2011–2014, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: sample design, 2007–2010, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: plan and operations, 1999–2010, National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements; US Department of Agriculture, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: 2015-2016 data documentation, codebook, and frequencies: dietary interview - total nutrient intakes, first day (DR1TOT_I), National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: 2015-2016 data documentation, codebook, and frequencies: demographic variables and sample weights (DEMO_I). x��=k�7��S��П�F��6���rM�=~�W��s�{����F���H�H�䲿����g���2��lA �ً����ru̞?��x\�n�7٧gw{�������_����n{u��|u�����W��Ь�>~��+��?�q�T�Bd7_ErIX��x��W� Q��է�l���GZ-��}����zm�{(͉h�A͋6.�����ot����:{� ������Ӂ�t`e�I���BĕzNhQ^��?ׄ�WW��|�&���W���L_�c.�y���A(a�����K�/�/���m�_�6�]��^�F�oW��>'�^jx {�/,0H:���]ӫK�ph �/���*��6�)sR6�֞#x�jkf��f��8���2�&�Nc"/h�d��H-K)ޤ�0���K����ť��[���������%��-.��~������X�g�� Funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH). Nonbreastfeeding infants were more likely to meet guidelines than breastfeeding infants (31.1% [95% CI: 27.6%–34.5%] vs 20.5% [95% CI: 15.4%–25.5%], respectively; P < .01).

Additionally, there was no significant variation by 2-year cycle in the percentage of infants who met vitamin D intake guidelines, overall, among breastfeeding infants, and among nonbreastfeeding infants (P > .05 for all χ2 tests). He questions the AAP's decision to set the same standard for babies as for much bigger adolescents. Additionally, although <40% of infants met guidelines in nearly all demographic subgroups, among breastfeeding infants, lower socioeconomic status was associated with increased risk of failing to meet the vitamin D intake guidelines.

However, vitamin D intake by US infants has fallen far short of these goals.

Position statement on vitamin D deficiency.

FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE: The authors have indicated they have no financial relationships relevant to this article to disclose.

In 2008, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), with the primary intention of preventing rickets, increased their recommended intake of vitamin D for infants <1 year of age from 200 to 400 IU daily.1 Specifically, the recommendations stated that exclusively or partially breastfeeding infants should be supplemented with 400 IU daily and that nonbreastfeeding infants should consume at least 1 L of formula daily.