Instead, Long was killed by the relative of one of his local political rivals a year before the election. About 15% of the household heads on relief were women, and youth programs were operated separately by the National Youth Administration. [51] Many of the women employed by the project were the sole breadwinners for their families. CD-ROM. [23]:562, The WPA reached its peak employment of 3,334,594 people in November 1938. Republicans offered a competing interpretation of the recent decline. The Republican Alf Landon won only two states and 8 electoral votes to FDR’s 523. behauptet werden, dass der New Deal eigentlich nur soziale und wirtschaftliche In retaliation, Coughlin turned from the New Deal, which he had once labeled “Christ’s deal,” and accused Roosevelt of being in league with the imagined Jewish syndicate who sought to bring gentile America to its knees. [23]:283[50], One WPA-funded project, the Pack Horse Library Project, mainly employed women to deliver books to rural areas in eastern Kentucky. The act also provided matching federal grants for states to create unemployment insurance, a system of financial compensation for injured workers, and direct financial aid for impoverished families with children. The Socialist and Communist Parties also ran in opposition to the New Deal, arguing that Roosevelt was representing the interests of corporations in a plot to save Capitalism from its natural demise. The two opposing perspectives reflected unresolved views about the limits of police authority and worker solidarity. In the years between 1936 and 1941, however, Roosevelt would struggle to keep his own party from splintering along the fault lines of race and region. U.S. [21]:504 Harrington's successor, Howard O. As a result, more and more Americans turned away from Coughlin, and his radio programs were cancelled. Most of the jobs were in construction, building more than 1 million km of streets and over 10,000 bridges, in addition to many airports and much housing. In 1935 there were 20 million people on relief in the United States. referred to the combined electoral strength Democrats enjoyed among various groups until divisions regarding the civil rights movement led white Southerners to embrace the Republican Party. In hindsight, it appears that the slow recovery was largely dependent upon inflation and government spending. However, most Americans rallied behind Roosevelt in 1936 for the same reasons they had in 1932—they did not believe the Republicans offered a better alternative. The Revenue Act of 1935 enacted significant tax hikes for the wealthiest Americans and seemed a harbinger of more radical measures that would seek nothing less than a complete redistribution of wealth. Of these, however, 1.65 million were said to be farm operators or persons who had some non-relief employment, while another 350,000 were, despite the fact that they were already employed or seeking work, considered incapacitated. Machine politics often controlled these decisions and sometimes led to brazen abuses. The goal of the WPA was to be an employer of last resort for those who otherwise would not have jobs and would presumably find their way onto relief roles. In the South, as might have been expected, this participation has been limited, and differential wages on the basis of race have been more or less effectively established; but in the northern communities, particularly in the urban centers, the Negro has been afforded his first real opportunity for employment in white-collar occupations. [29], A significant aspect of the Works Progress Administration was the Federal Project Number One, which had five different parts: the Federal Art Project, the Federal Music Project, the Federal Theatre Project, the Federal Writers' Project, and the Historical Records Survey. Long also made several enemies, and he was assassinated before the 1936 election.. Sprachen erhältlich, z.B. Some labor leaders feared the Wagner Act was still too ambiguous in some regards and, the NLRB lacked the power to do more than facilitate arbitration between employers and union representatives. Civil rights leaders initially objected that African Americans were proportionally underrepresented. The Division of Professional and Service Projects (called the Division of Women's and Professional Projects in 1937), which was responsible for. geschaffen durch den Bau neuer Straßen, Brücken, Flughäfen, Might the US government have also ended the Great Depression by spending its money in other ways? Marshall and Sidney Lumet. (2000). "Report of investigation of public relief in the District of Columbia". [30] It is one of the biggest bibliographical efforts and was directed by Dr. Luther H. Evans. [4]:70, There was a perception that WPA employees were not diligent workers, and that they had little incentive to give up their busy work in favor of productive jobs. Library: USA: 1930 - 1939, Franklin zwischen der Produktionskapazität und der Möglichkeit der The act also provided matching federal grants for states to create unemployment insurance, a system of financial compensation for injured workers, and direct financial aid for impoverished families with children. [30] Cedric Larson stated that "The impact made by the five major cultural projects of the WPA upon the national consciousness is probably greater in toto than anyone readily realizes. [21][page needed][30]. Explain the intent behind major programs of the Second New Deal, such as the WPA, Social Security Act, and Wagner Act. Members of various unions within the CIO who were not workers at the steel plants in question joined with their fellow steelworkers in a mass demonstration. Most Americans recognized this as an attempt by President Roosevelt to control the judiciary, which had recently issued a number of decisions unfavorable to various New Deal programs. Einkommen in Arabisch, Chinesisch, Französisch, Posters from the WPA at the Library of Congress, The WPA Library Project in South Carolina, South Carolina Public Library History, 1930–1945, WPA-FAP Mural Division in NYC, and restoration of murals at the Williamsburg Houses and Hospital for Chronic Diseases on Welfare Island, Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC), National Bituminous Coal Conservation Act, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Works_Progress_Administration&oldid=985864531#Projects, Defunct agencies of the United States government, Former United States Federal assistance programs, Government agencies disestablished in 1943. The FERA's first relief census reported that more than two million African Americans were on relief during early 1933, a proportion of the African-American population (17.8%) that was nearly double the proportion of whites on relief (9.5%). Over time, Coughlin’s rhetoric became angrier and openly anti-Semitic, causing his influence to decline. WPA Library Programs served those goals in two ways: 1- existing WPA libraries could distribute materials to the public on the nature of an imminent national defense emergency and the need for national defense preparation. Direct relief assistance was permanently replaced by a national work relief program—a major public works program directed by the WPA. In fact, it proved so popular with various other groups that the American two-party system would be fundamentally transformed during the 1930s. Bürgerkrieg und Expansion nach Westen, Krieg, John Salmond, "The New Deal and the Negro" in John Braeman et al., eds.